Updated: Feb 26
Mainland Africa has a recorded history from around 6000 BC.
A. Pre-Unification History
Pre-historic Era (Before 6000 BC)
During the mid-twentieth century, anthropologists found numerous fossils and proof of human occupation, perhaps 7 million years BP. Skeletons of humans have been found in East Africa that date back 195,000 years. Organized fishing expeditions on the Continent can be traced about 90,000 years ago. Mining 43,000 years ago, basic arithmetic 25,000 years ago, animal husbandry 15,000 years ago, crop cultivation 12,000 years ago, mummification of their dead 9,000 years ago, and the world's first colossal sculpture, the sphinx, was caved in Africa 7,000 years ago.
Antiquity (6000 BC - 350 AD)
The first known significant kingdom in Africa (some historians consider it the oldest known monarchy in the world) was Ta-Seti in ancient Nubia 59th century BC. The second major kingdom, Kemet, which developed as Nubian migrants spread their culture further down the Nile, subsequently became a colony of the Nubian kingdom of Ta-Seti. In the 56thcentury BC, Kemet became an independent and unified kingdom under the leadership of Mena, who became the first ruler of all independent Kemet and the founder of the first dynasty. The kingdom of Kemet (some would say an empire) spanned almost 6000 years until its decline at around 30 BC with the advent of the Romans. After the fall of Ta-Seti as an independent kingdom as it later became a Nome of Kemet, other Nubian kingdoms arose like Kerma and later Kush, which ironically became a colony of Kemet. Still, the tables turned again, and in the 8th century BC, Kush re-conquered Kemet and unified Kush and Kemet into an enormous empire.
Other civilizations flourished in ancient times: In the north, Carthage (814 BC - 146 BC) and Numidia (5th century BC to 46 BC). In the west, the Nok culture was the first known kingdom to emerge in 1000 BC; they created sculptures of incredible stylish skill, whose elaborate ordinances influenced craftsmanship all through the mainland. In the east, Ethiopia (the Axumite empire) has monuments that date back to the 5th century BC. Axum was a kingdom of castles, monasteries, cathedrals, and obelisks and profoundly influenced world affairs during the Christian era.
Moving on to the Central Sahara, we have the Sao culture, which began around the 4th century BC. Their political structures, technology, and architectural ideas shaped the states that succeeded after 800 AD, like the Kanem-Bornu Empire and the Hausa Confederation.
Medieval era (350 AD – 18th century)
Medieval Nubia, by the 6th century AD, three kingdoms flourished: Nobadia, Makuria, and Alwa. This is considered by certain historians one of the most significant periods in mainland history. Luxury was far-reaching into the sprawl of suburbia, not simply in the towns and urban communities. Archaeological excavations found suburbs with two-floor houses, standard sanitary facilities, drainage systems, and exceptionally developed irrigation systems. The Yoruba kingdoms were formed around 600 AD. Igbo-Ukwu flourished around 850 AD, and artifacts continue to baffle and astonish the world. Great Benin emerged in 900 AD, and its capital city was built on an incredible scale. To the kingdom of Kongo, most of its early history is lost; however, its medieval history can be pieced together with information and travelogues from European writers.
Like Ghana, the western medieval super-states can be traced back to 300 AD but became an empire in 700 AD. Then Mali became a superpower in the region after 1240 with such astonishing wealth that some modern public broadcasting institutions claimed that it became the wealthiest state in the 14th-century world. Its institutions were gathering places for intellectuals, and its monuments continue to impress with their power and originality. Songhai became the new regional power after 1464 and controlled territory as large as Europe.
The Moorish (moors were a mixture of African converts to Islam and southwestern Asians) Civilization which spanned parts of north Africa and far into Spain and Portugal, lasted from 711 AD to 1492, proved pivotal to the birth of the European Renaissance. The moors built great monuments which stand till this day in cities like Marrakech, Fez, Rabat, Algiers, Tlemcen, and Seville. Some of which are architectural marvels of the world. The Swahili states were several significant cities that flourished on the east coast from the 18th century AD. These cities were splendid, with houses of three to four floors and indoor toilets and piped water controlled by taps. Finally, cultures like Munhumutapa flourished from the 12th to the 13th century AD in the southern part of the mainland, and the Zulu Empire extended along the coast of the Indian ocean from the Tugela River in the south to the Pongola River in the north.
Maafa and Colonial Era (15th century – 1948)
Though most city-states, kingdoms, and empires flourished during this era, most of the mainland was plagued by the trans-Atlantic and Arab slave trade, commonly known as the Maafa, meaning great suffering or disaster in traditional Swahili. A significant part of the continental population was forcibly taken and enslaved in the New World. The Maafa significantly impacted the mainland and eventually led to the decline of nearly all kingdoms and city-states. Following the Maafa came the Colonial era, where most parts of the Continent were annexed by European powers, which led to a tremendous cultural decline. These colonial states gradually and forcibly took upon European cultural traditions and mannerisms.
Independence and Unification war (1948 – 1959)
The Unification War was the most bloody ever fought on the mainland and lasted 11 years, with the total number of military and civilian casualties comparable to that of World War I, at around 34 million. There were 14 million deaths and 20 million wounded, and the total number of deaths includes 5 million military personnel and about 9 million civilians. Historians describe the war as a civil war against colonial states that maintained colonial borders and relationships with their respective colonial powers and against some northern states who declined a continental unification and opted to join the Arab league. It was also a revolutionary war against colonial powers who attempted to maintain direct/indirect colonial control of their then colonies.
A continental assembly led by thirteen Founding Elders declared continental independence on the 19th of April 1948 in what is famously known as "Independence from the World." The Unified African Sovereignty and declaration of independence were not recognized internationally till after the war ended on the 25th of November 1958, and all colonial borders were dissolved. Before the congregation of the continental Assembly, the Founding elders were well aware that they couldn't talk their way into unifying the Continent. So, contingencies were made like hidden standing armies led by two founding Elders, General Mandla Nqobizitha and General Moges Neberu, provisioned by another founding Elder and business magnate, Baba Mari Bilali.
The Assembly was somewhat successful as some colonial states like the Gold Coast agreed to the Unification. Still, many others, especially French colonial states, opted to keep their territories, and other northern states declined the Unification and opted to join the Arab League. The Elders moved onto plan B as talking failed, and both generals Moges Neberu and Mandla Nqobizitha marched their armies and strategically yet impossibly took control of the entire Continent. It is generally accepted that there were 89 major battles over the 11 years of the war, with about 144 other significant battles, but the "Battle of the Sahara" was by far the bloodiest and most devastating battle of the war, claiming over 3 million casualties, of which more than half were battle deaths.
On the 26th of January 1959, a Supreme Law of the unified Continent was officially adopted and named Ma'at in honor of the ancient Nile valley deity of truth and justice. In the same year (1959), the Founding Elders, alongside other noteworthy participants, held another conference at a newly created capital of the unified Continent, Qustul, also known as the Federal Gate. The Qustul Conference lasted three months, resulting in the successful federation of the unified Continent as new internal borders were established based on pre-colonial borders and historical alliances to form 114 semi-sovereign parts called Doors, which shared sovereignty with the Fabaruka (Federal Government). The new internal borders were officiated on the 21st of December 1959, and the phrase "Unified Doors of Africa" was adopted as the country's official name. The government took the form of a Unified Federated Single Executive Constitutional Republic; "Unified Federated," because the Continent was unified into a single entity, dissolving all colonial borders in the process then federated into new 114 semi-sovereign internal parts. Unlike other federal systems around the world like the United States of America, sovereign states came together to form a union.
The founding elders were faced with multiple challenges. Still, the one which concerned them most was the issue of post-war leadership, as they were numerous debates and arguments within them on who will be the first leader of the new enormous Nation. Five years into the war, a certain distrust grew within the Elders until one of the Elders, Wanki Adenuga, proposed a compromise. They'll gather brilliant minds with strong leadership potentials from all around the Continent and train them to be leaders of the new Nation. These candidates were strategically chosen from various regions of what will become the 114 Doors, and amongst them, the first Keys were elected to govern their respective Doors and the first KXORM to head the new Nation. The Elders and other significant players will then form the legislature and other branches of government. Adenuga's proposition will lead to the formation of the Federal Farins Academy.
The founding Elders chose the title of Kandakê XOR Mansa (KXORM) to represent the leader of the Fa from many proposed titles. They concluded both titles had the most popularity and history for representing the new Nation's leader; "Kandakê" from the great Kandakês of Nubia and "Mansa" from the great Mansas of the Mali Empire. Other titles considered in place of Mansa included; Askia, Mai, Qore, Alaafin, Pharaoh, Oba, Oni, Asantahene, Negus, President, King, Emperor, etc. Alternative titles proposed in place of Kandakê included: President, Queen, Empress, and a significant contestant was "Queen Mother," which translated differently in various African subcultures to mean a woman of great power or who holds the most significant influence.
Here's a list of the thirteen key Founding Elders. These revolutionary and progressive leaders led Africa to total continental unity, independence from the world and constructed a frame of government for the Unified Doors of Africa, together with several other critical participants of their time, and left a legacy that has shaped the world.
Amina Adenaka: She was a lawyer and political activist known as the "Mother of Ma'at."
Assad Mohammed: He was a political activist, linguist, and interpreter known as the "Father of Ki-Africa."
Baba Mari Bilali: He was an expansionist, business magnate, and key contributor in the funding of the war.
Haile Selassie: He was an expansionist, Pan-African advocate, and emperor of Ethiopia at the time.
Kwame Nkrumah: He was a political activist and orator known as the "Father of the Movement" because he was a key player in organizing the first continental assembly.
Mandla Nqobizitha: He was one of two notable Military Generals who led the Continental Armies to victory in the Unification War.
Moges Neberu: He was one of two notable Military Generals who led the Continental Armies to victory in the Unification War.
Muna Wongibe: He was a writer, inventor, historian, anthropologist, physicist, and political activist and considered a polymath because of his extensive knowledge and learning.
Nnamdi Onyema: He was a statesman, negotiator, and continental unity activist.
Patrice Lumumba: He was a statesman and an anti-colonial political activist.
Ruben Um Nyobè: He was a statesman and an anti-colonial political activist.
Wanki Adenuga: He was a continental unity activist and political strategist.
Yaa Afua: She was a writer, lawyer, and anti-colonial political activist.
B. Post-Unification History
Restoration, Reconstruction, and Adaptation Era
After the Unification, the effects of the centuries of colonization were still very present as the colonial culture had sipped deep into the Continent's fabric. The first KXORM, Mansa Diop I, maintained stringent access into the Nation by foreigners to prioritize internal growth, eliminate colonial traditions and cultivate a unique and singular African culture. Mansa Diop I, enforced the new calendar as the national system of time, Ki-Africa as the official/national language, the Cedi as the official currency, led large infrastructural projects (primarily in the energy and transportation departments), and much more.
National adaptation to the new calendar, the Cedi, and the official/national language of Ki-Africa was quite a challenge. Mansa Diop I, issued Federal incentives to Doors that successfully integrated these elements into their respective societies, thus enabling widespread acceptance until they eventually became national norms.
The Unification brought an abundance of benefits, but one which stood out the most was the freedom of movement and trade. The free movement of people prompted rapid urbanization of remote regions as entrepreneurs explored these areas and created vast enterprises, drawing an unprecedented influx of people to them.
National infrastructures; such as a sophisticated postal system, vast networks of transcontinental railroads and highways, connecting bridges, communication systems, dams, public health facilities, food production and distribution channels, critical manufacturing, clean water, stable electricity, and lots of other critical infrastructure and vital systems necessary to maintain normalcy in daily life. These spurred nationwide economic growth, more significant settlement, and progressive development.
An example of one of these critical infrastructures is the Sahara Solar Power Farm. This Sprawling Solar farm is a collection of enormous solar plants scattered throughout the Sahara, forming one giant solar farm for harvesting solar power, the most abundant and clean source of energy we have. The Sahara is spacious, relatively flat, rich in silicon, the raw material for the semiconductors from which solar cells are made, and never short of sunlight. It is the world's largest solar farm capable of meeting the totality of the Nation's energy demand and supplies electricity to millions of households and commercial enterprises in the Nation. Though the Sahara solar farm is vital to the Unified Doors economy to boost renewable energy, environmental scientists have criticized its potential regional and even global effects on the climate.
Another Critical infrastructure is the Farba of the Cosmos, abbreviated as FACOS, responsible for the federal cosmos program, aeronautics, cosmological science, and research applications. Its science is focused on better understanding Earth through observing systems, advanced heliophysics, exploring bodies throughout the cosmos with advanced robotic cosmocraft, and researching astrophysics topics through sophisticated observatories and associated programs. Since its establishment, though FACOS has led most Unified Doors cosmos exploration efforts, other UD private enterprises have made similar exploration efforts but non-as successful as FACOS.
The Unified Doors has been heavily criticized for not actively participating in world affairs, as most historic KXORMs stayed away from world politics and conflicts and focused more on healing from the long Unification war, internal growth, and defending the Nation. Most of the criticism came from their silence on world conflicts like the Vietnam war, Cambodian civil war, most southwestern Asian conflicts, and the civil rights struggles in the United States. Though the Unified Doors has offered asylum to tens of thousands of refugees worldwide and citizenship to even more Afro-descendants in its diaspora, these criticisms still stuck as most thought of these efforts as passive and pushed for more active involvement. The current KXORM, Kandakê Imani I, who came into office after the assassination of her predecessor Mansa Ibrahim I, is looking to change this reality as her influence and participation on the world stage are getting worldwide traction. Some even say she's taking the Unified Doors to an imperial age as the Nation's presence and power appear to be significantly growing in some regions overseas.